APA Citations

This page will show some general tips for citing sources in APA style and offer a brief sample of some frequently used citations. Please consult your writing/grammar handbook or instructor for more specific questions and guidance.

In-text Citations

Parenthetical (in-text) citations contain the author's last name, year of publication, and page number in parentheses and come directly after quoted or paraphrased material. Unless the end punctuation (i.e. question mark or exclamation point) belongs with the quote, always put the period after the parenthetical citation.

"In the 1920s, the fashion style changed dramatically, causing a gender revolution" (Smith, 2003, p. 34).
According to Smith (2003), "In the 1920s, the fashion style changed dramatically, causing a gender revolution" (p. 34).

Parenthetical (in-text) citations should match the first item of each source in the reference list. Thus, if no author is given, you move to the next piece of information (usually the title) and cite a shortened form of that piece of information in your parenthetical citation.

If an internet article published in 2000 listed no author and no page number but was titled "Freedom Fighters", cite it as follows: "Douglass became an invaluable figure in the abolitionist movement" ("Freedom" 2000).

Reference List

A reference list should be placed at the end of the paper. Center the title, References, but do not underline it. All sources should be listed in alphabetical order.

All citations start 1" from the margin, but when you drop to the next line(s), indent 1/2". This hanging indention will make it easier for the reader to skim the sources by the alphabetized list of authors' last names.

Just as your entire paper should be double spaced, so should your reference list and all your entries.

A Book

Author's last name, Initial of first and middle names. (Year published). Title of book. Publication city and state if city is not well-known: Publisher.

Smith, J. (1999). The anatomy of the child. New York: Harper Collins.

A Work in an Anthology

Author's last name, Initial of first and middle names. (Year published). Title of work. In Editor’s name (Ed.), Title of Anthology (pages). Publication city: Publisher.

Crane, S. (1986). The open boat. In R.V. Cassill (Ed.), The Norton Anthology of Short Fiction (335-354). New York: W.W. Norton & Company.

An Article in a Magazine

Author's last name, Initial of first and middle names. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of Magazine, volume number (issue number), page(s).

Brooks, S. A. (1997, May 7). Cyberspace is warping our kids. Time, 135, 22-25.

An Article in a Newspaper

Author's last name, Initial of first and middle names. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of Newspaper, page number(s).

Rodriguez, J. (2000, April 12). Voucher system fails. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, pp. A1, B2.

An Article in a Journal

Author's last name, Initial of first and middle names. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number (issue number), page(s).

Danforth, E. W. (1997). The AIDS epidemic. JAMA, 49 (1), 120-126.

A Film

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Publication Date). Title of film. [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Capra, F. (Producer), & Capra, F. (Director). (1946). It's a wonderful life. [Motion picture]. United States: RKO.

Professional Website

Author's last name, Initial of first and middle names. (Publication Date). Title of web site. Retrieved month date, year, from URL.

Pagliaroni, S. A. (2000). UW Colleges On-line Writing Lab. Retrieved November 30, 2001 from http://uwc.edu/students/academic-support/owl.

Work from a Subscription Service (for example: EBSCOhost, Lexis-Nexis, ProQuest)

Author's last name, Initials of first and middle names. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of periodical, volume number (issue number). Retrieved on month day, year, from name of the database.

Williams, J. (1998, June 23). The ADD epidemic. Psychology Update, 23 (4). Retrieved on September 23, 2002 from ProQuest Direct.